How to construct scales and chords

How do you call the notes in relation of the scale?

  • Root note (the starting note of the scale or chord), minor second, major second, minor third, major third, perfect four, flat five (b5), perfect five, minor 6th, major 6th, minor 7th, and major 7th. After this sequence, the same note will turn up again which is one octave higher.
  • Octave: An octave is a series of eight notes (in relation to the scales) occupying the interval between (and including) two of the same notes with either twice or half the frequency or vibration of the other, depending on whether it is higher or lower in position (pitch) from the original note. For instance, from E to E or E-F-G-A-B-C-D-E is one octave. 

How to construct major scale?

  • The major scale consists of seven notes, they are: root note, major second, major 3rd, perfect four, perfect five, major 6th, and major 7th. 
  • For example, E major consist of E (root note), F# (major 2nd) G# (major 3rd), A (perfect four), B (perfect five), C# (major 6th) and D# (major 7th). 
  • A good exercise would be to write down and figure out the notes of the other scales, for example A major, G major, C major, and D major.

the TAB for E major scale on the E string and different strings

How do you construct major chord?

  • A major chord consists of the root note, the major 3rd, and the perfect 5. 
  • For example, E major consist of E (root note), G# (major 3rd), B (perfect five). 
  • A good exercise would be to write down and figure out the notes of the other chords, for example A major, G major, C major, and D major.

How do you construct minor chord?

  • A minor chord consists of the root note, the minor 3rd, and the perfect 5. 
  • For example, E minor consist of E (root note), G (minor 3rd), and B (perfect five). 
  • A good exercise would be to write down and figure out the notes of the other chords, for example A minor, G minor, C minor, and D minor.
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